If you've ever taken a Spanish class, you probably learned that "rubio" is blonde and "moreno" is brunette (or in general dark hair/dark skin). Guess what. It's not here. I guess I can't vouch for the rest of the Spanish-speaking countries, but here "moreno" means black. Don't say "African-American," because you'll seriously offend someone.
What exactly is considered racism anyway? People here are a lot more direct about appearances ("the fatty," for example, might be a way to identify your daughter). I get confused about whether it's inappropriate. In some ways, it seems that people here are more comfortable with racial differences and have no need to be politically correct. In other ways, it seems that they are being cruel. I always think it's odd to hear jokes about "morenos" here anyway, because to me, they're all "moreno" or at least varying shades of darker than me.
Most of the prejudice isn't directed against black/African descent people actually; it's against "serranos," people from the mountains. Peruvians are proud of their Incan heritage and prejudice against indigenous people at the same time. The whiter you are, the better. It's racial, but it's also cultural and economic. There's so much to say about the state of affairs here, and then again, so much I don't know and don't understand.
PS- Tim is about as white as you get around here and feels he suffers for it! He doesn't get jokes or snide comments; he gets high prices and people yelling "gringo" at him in the streets. He's suffering with grace but missing South Park Mall where he's in the majority as a blonde (although maybe not as a natural blonde).